Grunstein and Hogness method 

Grunstein and Hogness method also referred to as colony hybridization or nucleic acid hybridization  is a technique primarily used in molecular biology or biotechnology to screen the colony(s) from sample site. This procedure is performed in order to

1.Minimize the costly and time consuming procedures of colony pcr technique for screening of a bacterial colony.

Main theme of this procedure is the collection of the bacterial colony from sample site and then grown on nutrient media. After growth the cultures are then transferred to matrix like nitrocellulose membrane and then binding to a radioactivally labelled complementary DNA/RNA probes.


Get aware of bioterrorism 

We all know the level of destruction caused by the atomic bombs and chemical weapons. The idea for holding the command on whole planet among the existing super powers and and arsing one has gone to another level. The bionic army is key interest of weapon industry and defence intelligence institutions.

People are raising questions that why the hazardous viruses, bacteria are kept in safe labourtries? 

Some of them believe that these deadly means or mass destruction are kept in order to weak the enemy.

Expression Vectors A brief introduction 


Expression vectors are the types of vectors that are used to insert gene into host cell that expresses protein (most of the times)  or mRNA transcript.

In case it we are talking about inserting insulin gene into bacterial cell we need expression vectors so that our gene efficiently transferred and then expressed into bacterial cell. 

For expression of our protein into the bacterial cell the gene utilizes hosts transcriptional and translational machinery.